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The Optimal Duration for Effective Planking and Core Strengthening

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Planking has gained immense popularity as a core-strengthening exercise, but there is often confusion about how long one should hold a plank to achieve the best results. While some believe that longer plank durations lead to better muscle-building and shredded physiques, research suggests that there is a limit to the benefits of extended plank holds. In this article, we will delve into the benefits of planks, discuss the optimal duration for effective planking, explore different perspectives from medical and fitness professionals, and provide a variety of plank variations to enhance your core workout. So, let’s dive in and discover the truth behind the plank!

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Core Exercise: Plank

Why Planks Are Essential for Core Strength

Before delving into the optimal duration for planks, it’s important to understand why they are essential for developing core strength. The core muscles, which include the erector spinae, internal and external obliques, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and multifidi, play a crucial role in stabilizing the spine and promoting overall strength and balance. Annie Mulgrew, a founding instructor for CITYROW and NASM-certified personal trainer, emphasizes the significance of a strong core for improved movement, breathing, and daily functionality.

Research supports the benefits of core training, with studies showcasing how core exercises like planks can enhance endurance, balance, and even reduce chronic back pain. A 2019 study published in PLOS ONE found that eight weeks of core training improved endurance and balance in college-age endurance athletes. Additionally, regular core strengthening has been linked to a reduction in chronic back pain. By strengthening your core, you not only reduce strain on your lower back, knees, and shoulders but also enhance your overall physical performance.

Understanding the Benefits of Planks

Planks are revered for their ability to engage multiple muscle groups and provide a total-body workout. While there are other core-strengthening exercises like sit-ups and crunches, planks offer unique advantages that make them a popular choice among fitness enthusiasts. Mulgrew explains why planks are her favorite exercise for core strength and stability.

“Planking is a more total-body exercise than a crunch, which primarily targets the rectus abdominis,” she says. “Planking engages the arms, hips, glutes, legs, and upper back. It activates the deep stabilizing muscles through isometric contractions.” Unlike sit-ups, which engage the hips and lower back to a greater extent, planks provide a comprehensive workout without putting excessive strain on these areas.

Moreover, if you have a history of lower back or neck injuries, planks offer a safer alternative to crunches and sit-ups. By strengthening your core without unnecessary strain, planks can help protect your spine and prevent further damage. Mulgrew compares crunches and sit-ups to isolated exercises like biceps curls, while planks resemble compound exercises like squats or deadlifts in terms of engaging multiple muscle groups.

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Mastering the Perfect Plank Technique

Now that we understand the benefits of planks, let’s explore how to perform a perfect plank to maximize your results. Mastering proper form is crucial to ensure you engage the correct muscles and avoid injuries. Follow these steps to execute a plank with precision:

How to Perform a Perfect Plank:

  1. Start on the floor with your hands directly under your shoulders and knees on the ground.
  2. Extend your legs back, one at a time, maintaining a straight line from your heels to the top of your head.
  3. For stability, position your feet wider than hip-distance apart. If you crave a challenge, bring your feet closer together.
  4. Keep your gaze slightly in front of you, looking down at the floor, to maintain a neutral spine.
  5. Engage your abs, quads, and glutes, ensuring all these muscles are fully contracted.

Mulgrew offers additional form tips to enhance your plank technique:

  • Arms and legs should be perfectly extended: Ensure your arms and legs are fully extended to maximize muscle engagement.
  • Shoulders should be protracted: Push your shoulders down to open up space between your shoulder blades.
  • Tailbone reaches towards your inner heels: Maintain a straight line from your tailbone to your heels, activating your posterior chain.
  • Fully engage abdominals, glutes, and hips: Ensure your core, glutes, and hips are fully engaged throughout the plank hold.

By following these form tips and executing the perfect plank, you can optimize muscle activation and target the intended muscle groups effectively.

Determining the Optimal Duration for Planks

Now, let’s address the burning question: How long should you hold a plank to achieve the best results? While it may seem like longer plank durations lead to superior outcomes, experts have differing opinions on the matter. Albert Matheny, co-founder of SoHo Strength Lab, suggests that the length of time for plank holds can vary from as little as 10 seconds to up to a minute. However, he emphasizes that maintaining perfect form should be the primary goal.

Doug Sklar, a certified personal trainer and founder of PhilanthroFIT, recommends aiming for three sets of up to 60 seconds each. Starting with shorter sets and gradually working your way up to 60 seconds allows for progressive improvement in strength and endurance. Sklar suggests an alternative approach where you hold a plank for 10 seconds, rest for five to 10 seconds, and repeat for three to six sets. This method still provides similar strengthening benefits by engaging your muscles for the same total time as holding a plank for 30 to 60 seconds without breaks.

It is important to note that holding a plank for excessively long periods can strain your lower back. Sklar advises against forcing yourself to hold a plank beyond your capacity, as fatigue may lead to compromised form and increased risk of injury. If you can easily hold a plank for a minute, you can intensify the exercise by contracting your abs, glutes, and quads more.

Individual Goals and Plank Duration

The optimal duration for planks depends on your individual fitness goals. Consider the following scenarios to determine the best approach for you:

1. Building Pure Strength: If your primary goal is to build pure strength and muscle, simply holding regular planks for extended periods may not yield the desired results. To continually challenge your muscles and avoid plateauing, incorporate different plank variations as you progress. Increasing the difficulty through variations ensures that your muscles are constantly engaged and stimulated.

2. Gaining Endurance: For those aiming to enhance endurance and hold planks for extended periods, gradually increasing the duration is key. Create a routine that progressively increases the time spent planking each week. For example, hold a plank for 2 minutes, three times per day in the first week, then increase to 2.5 minutes, three times per day in the following week. Consistently upping the duration will help build endurance and push your limits.

3. Wellness-Oriented Approach: If you are new to fitness or focusing on overall wellness, it is essential to prioritize proper form before attempting long-duration planks or variations. Take the time to perfect your technique and gradually increase your plank duration as your core strength improves. If you enjoy wellness-promoting workouts like pilates or yoga, incorporating planks can contribute to a leaner and more agile body.

Ultimately, the optimal plank duration depends on your goals and fitness level. It is crucial to listen to your body, maintain proper form, and progress at a pace that feels comfortable yet challenging.

Expert Perspectives: Medical vs. Fitness Professionals

Opinions regarding the optimal plank duration vary among medical professionals and fitness experts. Dr. Stuart McGill, Ph.D., suggests that short bursts of planks are more beneficial than extended holds. In an interview with The Telegraph, he stated that performing three planks for just 10 seconds each is more effective than holding planks for longer durations. Dr. McGill emphasizes that prolonged planks primarily serve as a means to claim records and do not provide additional health benefits compared to other core exercises.

However, fitness professionals offer different perspectives. Benji Tiger, a personal trainer at OrangeTheory, recommends holding planks for 30 seconds to see results. On the other hand, Rob Arreaga, a trainer at New York City Equinox, suggests holding planks for at least one minute to achieve optimal outcomes. Despite differing opinions, these fitness professionals agree that proper form and consistent execution are paramount.

While medical professionals advocate for alternatives such as curl-ups, bird dogs, and side planks, fitness professionals maintain that planks are a valuable exercise for overall core strength. The key takeaway is that planks should be performed with correct form and integrated into a well-rounded fitness routine.

Plank Variations to Spice Up Your Workout

To augment your core-strengthening routine and avoid monotony, incorporate various plank variations. These variations target different muscle groups and intensify the challenge, providing a well-rounded core workout. Here are a few plank variations to try:

1. Side Planks: Side planks primarily target the obliques, which are essential for a well-defined core. Lie on your side, stack your feet, and raise your body, supporting yourself with one hand on the floor. Hold the position and repeat on the other side.

2. Single-Leg Planks: Single-leg planks increase the difficulty by challenging your balance and engaging additional muscles. Get into a regular plank position and lift one leg off the ground, maintaining balance. Hold the position and switch legs.

3. Plank Jacks: Plank jacks combine cardio and core work. Start in a regular plank position and jump your feet out and in, similar to a jumping jack motion. This variation adds a dynamic element to your core workout.

4. Mountain Climbers: Mountain climbers are another dynamic plank variation that engages your core and elevates your heart rate. Begin in a plank position and alternate pulling each knee toward your chest in a running-like motion.

5. Bird Dog Planks: Bird dog planks target your abs, obliques, glutes, and back. Start in a regular plank position and simultaneously lift one arm and the opposite leg off the ground. Hold the position and switch sides.

Incorporating these plank variations into your routine adds variety and challenges your core muscles from different angles.


In conclusion, the optimal duration for planks depends on your individual goals and fitness level. While medical professionals advocate shorter bursts of planks, fitness experts believe in longer durations to achieve desired outcomes. Regardless of the duration, maintaining proper form, progressing gradually, and incorporating various plank variations are crucial for maximizing your core-strengthening potential. By integrating planks into your workout routine and challenging yourself with variations, you can develop a strong, stable, and resilient core. So, get on the mat, engage your muscles, and embrace the power of the plank!

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